Not Just Academic: How Sociologists and Anthropologists Promoted Inclusion in the Community for Individuals with Disabilities

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Arnold Birenbaum


developmental disability, inclusion, institutions


"Until the 1970s, the practice of placing people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in large and isolated settings was regarded as both humane and legally correct. Then, some community-based voluntary associations sought legal redress for patterns of abuse, neglect and deprivation in such facilities. A noted challenge to keeping individuals with IDD in state schools is found in Halderman v. Pennhurst State School & Hospital, 446 F.Supp. 1295 (E.D. Pa., 1977). This litigation encouraged the development of new community options and the close of facilities in a number of states."
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