Operationalizing Human Rights and Human Security Through a Dynamic Model of Health

Main Article Content

Mary Anne Burke

Keywords

health equity, human rights, social inclusion

Abstract

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities challenges nations and the global community to address the long-standing, systemic discrimination and disenfranchisement experienced by disabled people throughout the world. This can be accomplished by understanding and paying attention to the dynamics linking human security and social inclusion. A healthy and secure society is one in which the needs of individuals are met and their contributions are encouraged and recognized. It upholds the value of diversity and recognizes that the extent to which every person realizes his or her unique potential, and the capacity of society to accommodate and honor that person's contribution, is the ultimate measure of health, both for the individual and for society. This paper draws on the Dynamic Model of Health  (Burke, Bach, Colman, McKie, & Ward Stewart, 2000) that roots health in the values of self-determination, equality, and democratization and in community processes that support social solidarity and inclusion as a framework for analyzing the existing situation of disabled peoples and the way forward. It presents work currently being undertaken in a project aimed at developing an "inclusive" Kyrgyzstan, drawing on work that operationalized the Dynamic Model of Health and the BIAS FREE Framework (Eichler & Burke, 2005; Burke & Eichler, 2006) in the context of disabled children. The paper calls into question the existing health and development model that perpetuates benefits for a few and leaves disabled peoples off the agenda. It argues that the logic of domination underlying all forms of discrimination and oppression is the same in all instances, although the types of discrimination are specific to a particular hierarchy –whether it is built on disability, gender, race, or other factors – and historical or cultural context. Understanding how to "get it right" for disabled peoples will point the way to improving human security more broadly. 
Abstract 62 | PDF Downloads 24 Word Downloads 9 Text Downloads 23

References

Allen, K. E., Cornell, A., Engel, M., & Paasche, C. L. (1998). Exceptional children: Inclusion in early childhood programs (2nd Canadian ed.). International Thompson Publishing.

Amundson, R. (2000). Against normal function. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 31, 33-53.

Arbour, L. Statement by Louise Arbour, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights General Assembly Ad Hoc Committee. Presented at 7th session, New York. (2006, January 20). Retrieved October 12, 2007, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/rights/ahc7stathchr.htm

Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classroom. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Bach, M., & Burke, M. A. (2002). Toward an inclusive approach to monitoring investments and outcomes in child development and learning. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Benjamin, J. (1988). The bonds of love: Psychoanalysis, feminism, and the problem of domination. New York: Pantheon.

Bernhard, J. (2000, March). Reconceptualizing ECE: Questioning theories and assumptions in human development. Presentation at the Linking Research To Practice, Second Canadian Forum.

Bronfennbrenner, V. (1999). Environments in developmental perspective: Theoretical and operational models. In S. L. Friedman and T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Measuring environments across lifespan: Emerging methods and concepts (pp. 3-28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Bruner, J. (2000). Tot thought. The New York Review.

Burke, M. A., Bach, M., Colman, R., McKie, C., & Ward Stewart, G. (2000). Dynamic Model of Health. Retrieved (date), from http://www.cwhn.ca/resources/health_model/Dmodel.pdf.

Burke, M. A. (2002). The construction of disability and risk in genetic counselling discourse. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., Bach, M., & Crawford, C. (2002). Moving in unison into action: Towards a policy strategy for improving access to disability supports. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., Crawford, C., & Pegg, S. (2002a). A tool for assessing child care/ECD programs. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., Crawford, C., & Pegg, S. (2002b). Community profile tool: Measuring inclusivity of early childhood resources. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., Crawford, C., & Pegg, S. (2002c). Early childhood development policy analysis tool. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., & Eichler, M. (2006). The BIAS FREE framework. A practical tool for identifying and eliminating social biases in health research. Global Forum for Health Research, Geneva, Switzerland.

Burke, M. A., & Pegg, S. (2003a). Inclusivity of the Child Care Policy Environment in Canada: Much Work to Be Done. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burke, M. A., & Pegg, S. (2003b). Analysis of special needs education policies in Canada using an inclusion lens. North York, Canada: The Roeher Institute.

Burt, S. C. (1937). The backward child. London: University of London Press.

Canadian Association for Community Living (CACL). (1999). Don't exclude our children: Include all Canada's children in the National Children's Agenda. Toronto, Canada: Statement on the National Children's Agenda.

Case, S. (2000). Refocusing on the planet: What are the social issues of concern for parents of disabled children? Disability & Society, 15, 271-292.

Dahlgren, G., & Whitehead, M. (2006). Levelling up (part 1): a discussion paper on European strategies for tackling social inequities in health. WHO EURO.

Doherty, G. (1997). Zero to six: The basis for school readiness. Ottawa: Human Resources Development Canada, Applied Research Branch.

Eichler, M., & Burke, M. A. (2006). The BIAS FREE framework: A new analytical tool for global health research. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 63-68.

Epp, J. (1986). Achieving health for all: A framework for health promotion. Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada.

Farmer, P. E., Nizeye, B., Stulac, S., & Keshavjee, S. (2006) Structural violence and clinical medicine. PLoS Medicine 3(10): e449 doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030449
Gardner, H. (1978). Developmental psychology: An Introduction. London: Little, Brown, and Company.

Graue, M. E. (1992). Social interpretations of readiness for kindergarten. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 7, 225-243.

Hanvey, L. (2002). Children with disabilities and their families in Canada: A discussion paper. National Children's Alliance for the First National Roundtable on Children with Disabilities. Retrieved (date), from http://www.nationalchildrensalliance.com/nca/pubs/2002/hanvey02.pdf

Haring, N. G., & , M. L. (1990). Exceptional children and youth. Columbus, OH: Merrill.

Health Canada. (1999). Health Canada's women's health strategy. Health Canada.

Jenson, J., & Stroick, S. M. (1999). A policy blueprint for Canada's children. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.

Kagan, S. (September, 1999). Cracking the readiness myth. Young Children.

Kagan, S. L., Moore, E., & Bredekamp, S. (1995). Reconsidering children's early development and learning: Towards common views and vocabulary (Rep. 95(3)). Canada: National Education Goals Panel, Technical Planning Group.

Lalonde, M. (1974). A new perspective on the health of Canadians. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: Minister of Supply and Services.

Levine, S. (2000). The Tao and Talmud of adolescence and young adulthood: Being, belonging, believing, benevolence. In L. T. F. & A. H. Esman (Vol. Eds.), Adolescent psychiatry: developmental and clinical studies: Vol. 25. The Annals of the American Society for Adolescent Psychiatry (pp. 45-58). Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Lindemann-Nelson, H. (1997). Stories and their limits: Narrative approaches to bioethics. New York: Routledge.

Love, J. M., Abers, J. A., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1999). Ready or not, here they come: Strategies for Achieving School Success for All Kansas City Children. Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, Missouri.

Mackelprang, R., & Salsgiver, R. (1999). Disability: A diversity model approach in human services practice. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Marquis, R., & Jackson, R. (2000). Quality of life and quality of service relationships: Experiences of people with disabilities. Disability & Society, 15, 411-425.

McCain, M., & Mustard, F. (1999). Reversing the real brain drain: Early years study. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Advanced Research.

McIntyre, R. L. & Caplan, A. L. (1994). Mapping morality: ethics and the Human Genome Project. An interview with Arthur L. Caplan, Ph.D. Trends in Health Care Law, & Ethics, 9, 7-12, 32.

Mead, G. H. (1972). Mind, self and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Meisels, S. (1996). Using work sampling in authentic assessments. Educational Leadership, 54, 60-65.

Meisels, S. J. (1999). Assessing readiness. In M. J. Cox & R. C. Pianta (Eds.), The transition to kindergarten. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Meisels, S. J. (2000). On the side of the child. Young Children.

Meisels, S. J., Atkins-Burnett, S., Xue, Y., Nicholson, J., & Bickel, D. (1998). Turning teachers' judgments: A validity study of curriculum-embedded performance assessment in kindergarten to grade 3 (Technical Report). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

Murray C. J. L. (1996). "Rethinking DALYs". In L. A. Murray & C. J. L. Murray (Series Ed.), The global burden of disease. Global Burden of Disease and Injury Series (pp. 1-98). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Murray, P. (2000). Disabled children, parents, and professionals: Partnership on whose terms? Disability & Society, 15, 683-698.

National Association for the Education of Young Children (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Washington: NAEYC.

Nord, E., Menzel, P., & Richardson, J. (2003). The value of life: individual preferences and social choice. A comment to Magnus Johannesson. Health Economics, 12(10), 873-877.

North Carolina Ready for School Goal Team (2000). School readiness in North Carolina: strategies for defining, measuring, and promoting success for all children. North Carolina: State Board of Education. Retrieved (date), from http://www.fpg.unc.edu/~SchoolReadiness/SRFullReport.pdf

Novick, M. (1997). Prospects for children: Life chances and civic society. Toronto: Laidlaw Foundation.

Odom, S. L. (2000). Preschool inclusion: What we know and where do we go from here. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 20, 20-27.

Odom, S. L., Wolery, R., Lieber, J., Sandall, S., Hanson, M. J., Beckman, P. et al. (2001). Preschool inclusion: A review of research forthcoming from an ecological systems perspective. In M. J. Guralnick (Ed.), Early childhood inclusion. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

Pianta, P. C., & Walsh, D. J. (1996). High risk children in schools: Constructing and sustaining relationships. New York: Routledge.

Polkinghorne, (1982). Narrative knowing and the human sciences. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Ricoeur, P. (1992). Oneself as another [Soi-meme comme un autre]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Roberge, R., Berthelot, J. M., & Wolfson, M. (1995). The health utility index: Measuring health differences in Ontario by socio-economic status. Health Reports, 17, 25-32.

Roeher Institute (2000a). Agenda for action: Policy directions for children with disabilities and families. North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Roeher Institute (2000b). Beyond the limits: Mothers caring for children with disabilities. North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Roeher Institute (2000c). Towards inclusion. North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Roeher Institute (1999). Towards an inclusive model for child well being and healthy development. North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Roeher Institute (1998). National evaluation of NSIPD Deinstitutionalization Initiative, final report North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Roeher Institute (1993). Social well-being. North York, Canada: Roeher Institute.

Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada. (2002). Building on values: The future of health care in Canada – Final report. Health Canada. Available at http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071122004429/http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english/pdf/romanow/pdfs/hcc_final_report.pdf

Solar, O., & Irwin, A. (2007) A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Discussion Paper for the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. p. 9.

Shore, R. (1997). Rethinking the brain: New insights into early development. New York: Families and Work Institute.

Skrtic, T. M. (1991). Behind special education: A critical analysis of professional culture and school organization. Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Wolbring, G. (2008) Why NBIC? Why human performance enhancement? European Journal of Social Science Research, 21(1), 25-40.

World Health Organization. WHO definition of health, Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946. http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/.

World Health Organization. (2007). Disability adjusted life years. World Health Organization (WHO). Available at http://www.who.int/healthinfo/boddaly/en/index.html

UNICEF. (2009). Assessment of the situation of children with disabilities in Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan: UNICEF.

UNICEF. (2005) "Convention on the Rights of the Child: The human rights framework." Retrieved June 10, 2009, from http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_framework.html

United Nations. (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York: United Nations. Available: http://www.un.org/disabilities/default.asp?navid=12&pid=150

United Nations. (2005). One United Nations: Catalyst for progress and change - How the Millennium Declaration is changing the way the UN system works. New York: United Nations. http://www.unsystemceb.org/oneun/2/p202

United Nations Human Rights Council (2007). Implementation of General Assembly Resolution 60/251 of 15 March 2006 Entitled "Human Rights Council" Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on progress of the recommendations contained in the study on the human rights of persons with disabilities. New York: United Nations.