Validation and Affirmation of Disability and Deaf Culture: A Content Analysis of Introductory Textbooks to Special Education and Exceptionality

Main Article Content

John Johnson

Keywords

Deaf culture, disability culture, textbooks

Abstract

This paper reports the findings of a review and normative content analysis of 10 introductory textbooks to Special Education to assess the extent that disability culture, Deaf culture and related topics were addressed. A total of 5,481 pages of text were analyzed to determine the number of pages that addressed disability culture, Deaf culture and related topics, and the number of pages of text authored by deaf persons and people with disabilities. Results indicated that disability and Deaf culture were not identified or discussed in any chapter specifically addressing cultural diversity, Multicultural Education or bilingual education. Disability culture was discussed on three pages and the discussion of Deaf culture comprised less than two percent of the total pages reviewed.  Discussion of the advocacy efforts of disabled and Deaf persons, the disability rights and independent living movements and the identification of disabled and Deaf leaders was very limited. It was concluded that representation of disability and Deaf culture and the perspectives and views of disabled and Deaf persons in the textbooks reviewed was minimal. Discussion and recommendations address the need to promote cultural competence with respect to disability and Deaf culture in the preparation of Special Education teachers, and the need to provide disabled and Deaf youth access to their communities, history and shared experience.

Abstract 233 | PDF Downloads 32 Word Downloads 5 Text Downloads 55

References

Albrecht, G. L., Seelman, K. D., & Bury, M. (2001). Introduction: The formation of disability studies. In G. L. Albrecht, K. D. Seelman, & M. Bury (Eds.), Handbook of disability studies (pp. 1-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Banks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (2004). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (5th ed.). Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.

Barnes, C., & Mercer, G. (2001). Disability culture: Assimilation or inclusion? In G. L. Albrecht, K. D. Seelman, & M. Bury (Eds.), Handbook of disability studies (pp. 515-534). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Barnes, C., & Mercer, G. (2003). Disability. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.

Braddock, D. L., & Parish, S. L. (2001). An institutional history of disability. In G. L. Albrecht, K. D. Seelman, & M. Bury (Eds.), Handbook of disability studies (pp. 11-68). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Brantlinger, E. (2004). Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice. In S. Danforth & S. D. Taff (Eds.), Crucial Issues in Special Education (pp. 56-71). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Brown, S. E. (1994). Investigating a Culture of Disability. Final Report. Washington, DC: National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

Brown, S. E. (2002). What is disability culture? Disability Studies Quarterly, 22(2), 34-50.

Burch, S. (2001). Reading between the signs: Defending Deaf culture in early twentieth-century America. In P. K. Longmore and L. Umanksy (Eds.), The new disability history: American perspectives (pp. 214-235). New York: New York University Press.

Burch, S. (2002). Signs of resistance: American deaf cultural history, 1900 to WWII. New York: New York University Press.

Charlton, J. I. (1998). Nothing about us without us: Disability, oppression and empowerment. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Colarusso, R., & O'Rourke, C. (2004).Special education for all teachers. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.

Coon, C. (2000). Culture wars and the global village: A diplomat’s perspective. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Council for Exceptional Children. (2003). CEC performance-based standards. Retrieved November 17, 2003, from http://www.cec.sped.org/ps/perf_based_stds/standards.html#standards

Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care, Volume I. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Child Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance Center.

Cushner, K., McClelland, A., & Safford, P. (2003). Human diversity in education: An integrative approach (4th ed). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Davis, L. J. (1995). Enforcing normalcy: Deafness, disability and the body. London: Verso.

Edgar, E., Patton, J. M., & Day-Vines, N. (2002). Democratic dispositions and cultural competency: Ingredients for school renewal. Remedial and Special Education, 23(4), 231-234.

Foster, H. L., & Iannaccone, C. J. (1994). Multicultural content in Special Education introductory textbooks. The Journal of Special Education, 28(1), 77-92.

Gargiulo, R. M. (2003). Special education in contemporary society: An introduction to exceptionality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Gay, G. (2003). Becoming multicultural educators: Personal journey toward professional agency. Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.

Groce, N. E. (1985). Everyone here spoke sign language: Hereditary deafness on Martha's Vineyard. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hahn, H. (1997). Constructions of deafness. In L. J. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (pp. 153-171). NY: Routledge.

Hallahan, D. P, & Kauffman, J. M. (1994). Toward a culture of disability in the aftermath of Deno and Dunn. The Journal of Special Education, 27(4), 496-508.

Hallahan, D. P., & Kauffman, J. M. (2003). Exceptional learners: Introduction to Special Education (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Hardman, M. L., Drew, C. J., & Egan, M. W. (2005). Human exceptionality: School, community and family (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Heward, W. L. (2000). Exceptional children: An introduction to Special Education (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Hunt, N., & Marshall, K. (2002). Exceptional children and youth (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Ingstad, B., & Whyte, S. (1995). Disability and culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Jones, M. A. (2002). Deafness as culture: A psychosocial perspective. Disability Studies Quarterly, 22(2), 51-60.

Kalyanpur, M., & Beth, M. (1999). Culture in Special Education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kirk, S. A., Gallagher, J. J., & Anastasiow, N. J. (2003). Educating exceptional children (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Kirshbaum, M. (2000). A disability culture perspective on early intervention with parents with physical or cognitive disabilities and their infants. Infants and Young Children, 13, 9-10.

Krippendorf, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions (3rd ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lane, H. (1976). When the mind hears: A history of the deaf. New York: Random House.

Lane, H. (1992). The mask of benevolence: Disabling the deaf community. New York: Knopf.

Lane, H. (1997). Constructions of deafness. In L. Davis (Ed.), The disability studies reader (pp. 153-171). New York: Routledge.

Lindsey, R. B., Robins, K. N., & Terrell, R. D. (2003). Cultural proficiency: A manual for school leaders (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Linton, S. (1998). Claiming disability: Knowledge and identity. New York: New York University Press.

Longmore, P. K., & L. Umansky, L. (Eds.). (2001). The new disability history: American perspectives. New York: New York University Press.

Longmore, P. K. (2003). Why I burned my book and other essays on disability. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Nieto, S. (2004). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Padden, C., & Humphries, T. (1988). Deaf in America: Voices from a culture. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Pfeiffer, D. (1984). Is there a culture of disability? 1984 and Beyond, Proceedings of 1984 AHSSPPE Conference.

Pfeiffer, D. (2004). An essay on the beginnings of disability culture and its study. Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, 1(1), 14-15.

Rueda, R., & Prieto, A. G. (1979). Cultural pluralism: Implications for teacher education. Teacher Education and Special Education, 2(4), 4-11.

Scheerenberger, R. C. (1983). A history of mental retardation. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Scheerenberger, R. C. (1987). A history of mental retardation: A quarter century of promise. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Schein, A. (1984). Is there a culture of disability? 1984 and Beyond, Proceedings of 1984 AHSSPPE Conference.

Shapiro, J. (1993). No pity. New York: Times Books.

Sleeter, C. E., & Grant, C. A. (2002). Making choices for multicultural education: Five approaches to race, class, and gender (4th ed.). Indianapolis: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, D. D. (2004). Introduction to Special Education: Teaching in an age of opportunity (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Smith, R. M. (2001). View from the ivory tower: Academics constructing disability. In L. J. Rogers & B. B. Swadener, Semiotics & dis/ability (pp. 55-74). NY: State University of New York.

Smith, T. E. C., Polloway, E., Patton, J. R., & Dowdy, C. A. (2004). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.

Sorrells, A. M., Webb-Johnson, G., & Townsend, B. L. (2004). Multicultural perspectives in Special Education: A call for responsibility in research, practice and teacher preparation. In A. M. Sorrells, H. J. Rieth, & P. T. Sindelar (Eds.), Critical issues in Special Education: Access, diversity, and accountability (pp. 73-91). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Stapleton, D., & Burkhauser, R. V. (2003). The decline in employment of people with disabilities: A policy puzzle. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Turnbull, R., Turnbull, A., Shank, M., Smith, S., & Leal, D. (2002). Exceptional lives: Special education in today's schools (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Van Cleve, J. V., & Crouch, B. A. (1989). A place of their own: Creating the deaf community in America. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Zola, I. K. (1982). Missing pieces: A chronicle of living with a disability. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.