Trends Toward the Integration and Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Russia

Main Article Content

S.V. Alehina
Debra Cote
Erica J. Howell
Vita Jones
Melinda R. Pierson


inclusive education, international education, Russia


During the past 20 years, the Russian government and culture at large has increased its awareness of integrative and inclusive educational practices for children with disabilities. However, educational reformers cite the need for the implementation of these practices on public school campuses. In response to the dearth of legislative action in implementing integrative and inclusive practices, parents of children with disabilities, in conjunction with community organizations, have become strong advocates for the rights of their children to attend integrated and inclusive school settings. This paper presents the current changes in Russia’s education system for students with disabilities as the country moves toward integrative and inclusive practices.
Abstract 222 | PDF Downloads 118 Word Downloads 1 Text Downloads 57


Alehina, S.V. (May, 2012a). Inclusive education in Russia: State and development trends. Paper presented to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

Alehina, S.V. (March, 2012b). Challenges and tendencies of school inclusive practice in Russian education. Regional Open Social Institute: Kursk, Russia.

2011-2015 Federal Program of Education Development (2012). Retrieved from:

2011-2015 Accessible Environment (2012). Retrieved from: bin/cis/fcp.cgi/Fcp/ViewFcp/View/2011/392

Federal Education Standards (2012). Retrieved from:

Institute of Problems of Integration Education (2009). Retrieved from:

Godovnikova, D. (2009). The conditions for the integrated education of children with impaired development. Russian Education and Society, 51(10), 26-39.

Grigorenko, E.L. (1998). Russian “Defectology”: Anticipating Perestroika in the field. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(2), 193-207.

Iarskaia-Smirnova, E.R., & Loshakova, I.I. (2004). Inclusive education of handicapped children. (2004). Russian Education and Society, 46(12), 63-74.

Korkunov, V.V., Nigayev, A.S., Reynolds, L.D., & Lerner, J.W. (1998). Special education in Russia: History, reality, and prospects. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31(2), 186-192.

Khudorendo, E.A. (2011). Problems of the education and inclusion of people with disabilities. Russian Education and Society, 53(12), 82-91.

Lesnevskiy, Y.Y., & Miyakawa, M. (2009). Accessible education in Russia: A way for the visually impaired to achieve equal social status. Education of Disabilities, 7, 21-26.

Logomag, S. (2012). Inclusive and special education: Barriers and risks of development. Scientific Papers of International Theoretical Metodologicheskogo Seminar.

Malofeev, N.N. (1998). Special education in Russia: Historical aspects. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 181-185.

Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. (2012, April).

Morova, N. (2012). Scholar school “Social rehabilitation of disabled children”: From founding to modern practice. International Journal of Academic Research, 4(2), 195-197.

Moscow Law On Education of Persons with Disabilities, (2012). Retrieved from:

Nazarova, N.M (2011). To the problem of development of theoretical and methodological outlines of integrated education. Psychological Science and Education, 3, 5-11.

On Education Law (2010). Retrieved from:

Oreshkina, M. (2009). Education of children with disabilities in Russia: On the way to integration and inclusion. International Journal of Special Education, 24(3), 112-120.

Roza, D. (2005). Inclusive education in Russia: A status report. Disability World, 27.

Zhavoronkov R.N. (2011) Development of inclusive education in Russia at the present stage: social and legal aspects. Psychological Science and Education, 4.