Main Article Content
postsecondary, simulations, training, disability awareness
Increasing numbers of students with disabilities participate in mainstream pre-college classes in preparation for higher education. Many educators and administrators have limited knowledge about specific accommodations that can facilitate learning for students with disabilities. Professional development has the potential to increase their knowledge and skills in this area. Simulations of disability experiences, such as completing tasks while covering eyes or sitting in a wheelchair, have sometimes been used to show learners what it is like to have a disability. This form of training has been criticized as inappropriate in the context of emerging paradigms of disability studies, which leads to the question: “Is the use of disability-related simulations ever appropriate?” In this article, we explore positive and negative aspects of disability-related simulations; paradigm shifts regarding approaches to disability studies; implications for training educators and administrators, and examples of disability awareness activities that maximize positive outcomes.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 104 Stat. 327. Retrieved May 1, 2004, from: http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/statute.html
Bar, L., & Galluzzo, J. (1999). The accessible school: Universal design for educational settings. Berkeley, CA: MIG Communications.
Biordi, B., & Ooermann, M. H. (1993). The effects of prior experience in a rehabilitation setting on students attitudes towards the disabled. Rehabilitation nursing, 18, 95-98.
Brendemeier, M. E., & Greenblat, C. S. (1981). The educational effectiveness of simulation games: A synthesis of findings. Simulation and gaming, 12, 307-332.
Bruschke, J., Gartner, C., & Seiter, J. (1993, March). Student ethnocentrism, dogmatism and motivation: Study of BAFA BAFA. Simulation & gaming, 23, 9-15.
Burgstahler, S. (2002). Accommodating students with disabilities: Professional development needs of faculty. To improve the Academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development, 21, 181-183.
Burgstahler, S. (2001). Universal design of instruction. Seattle, WA: DO-IT, University of Washington. Retrieved May 1, 2004, from http://www.washington.edu/doit/Brochures/Academics/instruction.html
Burgstahler, S., & Doe, T. (in press). Improving postsecondary outcomes for students with disabilities: Designing professional development for faculty. Journal of postsecondary education and disability.
Clore, G. L., & Jeffery, K. M. (1972). Emotional role playing, attitude change and attraction toward a disabled person. Journal of personality and social psychology, 23, 105-111.
Dona, J., & Edmister, J. H. (2001). An examination of community college faculty members' knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 at the fifteen community colleges in Mississippi. Journal of postsecondary education and disability, 14(2), 91-103.
Donaldson, J. (1980). Changing attitudes toward handicapped persons: A review of the literature. Exceptional children, 46, 504-545.
Duke, E. S. (1986). A taxonomy of games and simulations for nursing education. Journal of nursing education, 25, 197-207.
Finkelstein, V. (1991). Disability: An administrative challenge, the health and welfare heritage. In M. Oliver (Ed.), Social work, disabled people and disabling environments (pp. 63-77). London: Jessica Kingsley.
French, S. (1992). Simulation exercises in disability awareness training: A critique. Disability, handicap and society, 7, 257-266.
French, S. (Ed.). (1994). On equal terms: Working with disabled people. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Gill, C. J. (1987). A new social perspective on disability and its implications for rehabilitation. In F. S. Cromwell (Ed.), Sociocultural implications in treatment planning in occupational therapy (pp. 49-55). New York: The Haworth Press.
Hahn, H. (1988). The politics of physical differences: Disability and discrimination. Journal of social issues, 44(1), 39-47.
Hertel, J. P., & Millis, B. J. (2002). Using simulations to promote learning in higher education. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing.
Hunter, M., & Clark, R. E. (1977, July). Simulation/gaming research. Educational technology, 17, 44-46.
Jones, K. (1995). Simulations: A handbook for teachers and trainers (3rd ed). London: Kegan Page.
Jones, S. R. (1996). Toward inclusive theory: Disability as social construction. NASPA journal, 33, 347-354.
Karraker, M. (1993). Mock trials and critical thinking. College teaching, 41(4), 134-136.
Kiger, G. (1992). Disability simulations: Logical, methodological and ethical issues. Disability, handicap and society, 7(1), 71-78.
Leyser, Y., Vogel, S., Wyland, S., & Brulle, A. (1998). Faculty attitudes and practices regarding students with disabilities: Two decades after implementation of Section 504. Journal of postsecondary education and disability, 13(3), 5-19.
Livingston, S. A., & Kidder, S. J. (1993). Role identification and game structure: Effects on political attitudes. Simulation & gaming, 4, 131-144.
London Boroughs disability resource team. (1991). Disability equality training materials guide. London: CCETSW.
National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports (NCSPES). (2000a). National survey of educational support provision to students with disabilities in postsecondary education settings. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa.
National Center for the Study of Postsecondary Educational Supports (NCSPES). (2000b). Postsecondary education and employment for students with disabilities: Focus group discussions on supports and barriers in lifelong learning. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii at Manoa.
Oliver, M., & Barnes. C. (1998). Disabled people and social policy: From exclusion to inclusion. Essex: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.
Pfeiffer, D. (1989). Disability simulation using a wheelchair exercise. Journal of postsecondary education and disability, 7(2), 53-60.
Randel, J., Morris, B., Wetzel, C. D., & Whitehill, B. (1992). The effectiveness of games for educational purposes: A review of recent research. Simulation and gaming, 23(3), 261-276.
Remus, W. (1991). Experimental designs for analyzing data on games. Simulation and gaming, 12, 3-14.
Richardson, M. (1990). Disabled for a day. Nursing times, 86, 66-8.
Scullion, P. (1996). Quasidisability experiences using simulation. British journal of therapy and rehabilitation, 4, 292-293.
Scullion, P. (1999). Conceptualizing disability in nursing: Some evidence from students and their teachers. Journal of advanced nursing, 29, 648-657.
Semple, J. E., Vargo, J. W., & Vargo, F. A. (1980). Disability simulation and its effect on changing the attitudes of physical therapy students towards disabled persons: Some preliminary experimental results. New Zealand journal of physiotherapy, 8(2), 6-8.
Shirts, R. G. (1973). BAFA BAFA. Lajolla, CA: Simile II.
Siperstein, G., & Bak, J. (1980). Improving children's attitudes toward blind peers. Journal of visual impairment and blindness, 56, 132-135.
Swain, J., & Lawrence, P. (1994). Learning about disability: Changing attitudes or challenging understanding? In S. French (Ed.), On equal terms: Working with disabled people (pp. 87-102). Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann.
Thompson, A., Bethea, L., & Turner, J. (1997). Faculty knowledge of disability laws in high education: A survey. Rehabilitation counseling bulletin, 40, 166-180.
Universal design for learning. (2003). Retrieved May 1, 2004, from the Center for Applied Special Technology web site: http://www.cast.org/udl/
Wenzler, I., & Chartier, D. (1999). Why do we bother with games and simulations: An organizational learning perspective. Simulation and gaming, 30, 375-84.
Westwood, M. J., Vargo, J. W., & Vargo, F. (1981). Methods for promoting attitude change towards and among disabled persons. Journal of applied rehabilitation counseling, 12, 220-225.
What is universal design? (2003). Retrieved May 1, 2004, from the National Center for Universal Design web site: http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/univ_design/ud.htm
Wilson, E. D., & Acorn. D. (1979). Disability simulation and development of attitudes toward the exceptional. Journal of special education, 33, 303-7.