Main Article Content
hate crimes, abuse and disabilities, violence and disability
This paper identifies some of the characteristics of disability hate crimes and explains the difference between a “hate crime” and other sorts of crimes. Hate crimes are best understood as crimes with two victims (both individuals and communities) and as two crimes in one act. The high level of violence associated with hate crimes are noted, and the evidence necessary to demonstrate “hate” exists is also discussed. The differences between hate speech and hate crimes are outlined. The paper discusses the rapid growth in recent years of anti-disability websites on the Internet. It suggests that the use of the Internet to promote hatred of disabled people is a serious concern. Finally, some possible responses to disability hate crimes are identified, including legislation, improvements in reporting procedures, community interventions, and support for individual victims.
Balboni, J.M. and McDevitt, J. (2001) “Hate Crime Reporting: Understanding Police Officer Perceptions, Departmental Protocol, and the Role of the Victim”, Justice Research and Policy, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring, pp. 1-27.
Bell, J. (2002) Policing Hated: Law Enforcement, Civil Rights and Hate Crime, New York, NY: New York University Press.
Bodinger De Uriate, C. and Sancho, A.R. (1992) Hate Crime: Sourcebook for Schools, Los Alamitos, CA: Southwest Center for Educational Equity.
Consortium for Citizens With Disabilities (1999) “Disability-Based Bias Crimes”, accessed online, 10 June 1999, http://www.ccd.org/hate.htm.
Craig, K.M. (2002) “Examining Hate-Motivated Aggression: A Review of the Social Psychological Literature on Hate Crimes as a Distinct Form of Aggression”, Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 7, pp. 85-101.
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R., Cogan, J.C. and Glunt, E.K. (1997) “Hate Crime Victimization among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults: Prevalence, Psychological Correlates, and Methodological Issues”, Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Vol. 12, No. 2, April, pp.195-217.
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. and Cogan, J.C. (1999) “Psychological Sequelae of Hate-Crime Victimization among Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Adults”, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 67, No. 6, December, pp. 945-951.
International Association of Chiefs of Police (1998) “Hate Crime In America Summit Recommendations”, accessed online, 19 November 2002,
Jenness, V. and Grattet, R. (2001) Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement, New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Levin, J. and McDevitt, J. (2002) Hate Crimes Revisited: America’s War on Those Who Are Different, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Martin, S.E. (1996) “Investigating Hate Crimes: Case Characteristics and Law Enforcement Responses”, Justice Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 3, September, pp. 455-480.
McLaughlin, K.A. and Brilliant, K.J. (1997) Healing the Hate: A National Hate Crime Prevention Curriculum for Middle Schools, Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.
McPhail, B.A. (2000) “Hating Hate: Implications of Hate Crime Legislation”, Social Service Review, December, pp. 635-653.
National Coalition for the Homeless (2003) Hate, Violence and Death on Main Street USA: A Report on Hate Crimes and Violence Against People Experiencing Homelessness from 1999-2002, Washington, DC: National Coalition for the Homeless.
National Homeless Civil Rights Organizing Project (2000) A Report of Hate Crimes and Violence Against People who are Homeless in the United States in 2000, Washington, DC: National Coalition for the Homeless. Accessed online 9 June 2003, http://www.nationalhomeless.org/hatecrimes/.
Saxton, M., Curry, M.A., Powers, L.E., Maley, S., Eckels, K. and Gross, G. (2001) “Bring My Scooter So I Can Leave You”, Violence Against Women, Vol. 7, No. 4, April, pp. 393-417.
Shakespeare, T., Gillespie-Sells, K. and Davies, D. (1996) Untold Desires: The Sexual Politics of Disability, New York, NY: Cassell.
Sherry, M. (2000) “Hate Crimes Against Disabled People”, Social Alternatives, Vol. 19, No. 4, October, pp. 23-30.
Sherry, M. (2002) “Don’t Ask, Tell or Respond: Silent Acceptance of Disability Hate Crimes”, UC Berkeley student paper.
Sherry, M. (2003) “Exploring Disability Hate Crimes”, Paper for 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Disability Studies, Bethesda, Maryland. June 12, 2003.
Sobsey, D. (1994) Violence and Abuse in the Lives of People With Disabilities: The End of Silent Acceptance?, Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes.
TASH (2002), “The Crisis in Violence Against People With Disabilities: Where Do We Go From Here?”, accessed online, 26 November 2002, http://www.ualberta.ca/~edpy502/tashv/violnews.html.
U.S. Department of Education (2002) Preventing Youth Hate Crime, accessed online, 19 November 2002, http://www.ed.gov/pubs/HateCrime/start.html.
U.S. Department of Justice (2001) “Hate Crime: The Violence of Intolerance”, CRS Bulletin, December.